Harvard’s year of exile

first_imgAs Harvard celebrates its 375th anniversary, the Gazette is examining key moments and developments over the University’s broad and compelling history.Lexington and Concord. April 19, 1775. Where and when the Revolutionary War started is well known.Not so well known is the fact that Harvard played an important, if odd, role afterward in the early days of the Revolution, turning its campus over to the nascent American army. On May 1, 1775, undergraduates were dismissed and given an early summer vacation. Classes resumed on Oct. 5 in Concord, 20 miles away — the beginning of a wartime academic sojourn.Student safety was a factor in the move, said historian John L. Bell, a specialist in the early days of the war, but so was a worry that students would consort with rough and tumble soldiers. “There was discipline,” he said of the American army gathering in Cambridge. “But it wasn’t college discipline.”Harvard’s move to Concord also served a practical military purpose. Provincial troops fortifying Cambridge during the siege of Boston needed places to stay. The five Harvard buildings were used to house 1,600 soldiers — more than the population of Cambridge at the time. Hollis and Massachusetts halls each held 640 soldiers; Stoughton Hall (razed in 1781) was home to 240; and tiny Holden Chapel bunked 160. Harvard Hall — the College buttery, library, and social space — served a similar function. Tents and rude barracks sprang up in Harvard Yard, and soldiers built a defensive breastwork on high ground near Quincy Street, where Lamont Library now stands.Harvard was not on the front lines, said Bell, since most of the nearest fortifications were built in East Cambridge and parts of what is now Somerville. The new war did not bring “physical disruption” to Harvard, he said, so much as “social disruption.”Social disruption also accompanied Harvard’s move to Concord. The library was shipped there, along with the College fire engine, the museum, and even the Ellicott Regulator Clock, a key item of “philosophical apparatus” valued for its precise astronomical timekeeping.Harvard students took rooms in Concord where they could, including a dozen who boarded with Dr. Joseph Lee, who was under house arrest as a British spy. Classes — reduced to two recitations a day in winter — were held in a deserted grammar school, and in Concord’s courthouse and the First Parish meetinghouse.Jenny Rankin, M.Div. ’88, one of First Parish’s current ministers (and the first woman to hold the title), is intrigued by “the thought of this small, sleepy town being invaded by boys.”  Harvard’s Concord interlude has been much on her mind, since First Parish celebrates its own 375th anniversary this year. The Concord church opened in 1636, the same year as Harvard College.The meetinghouse where Harvard’s exiled students gathered burned down in 1900, said Rankin, but a few artifacts remain: an oaken beam, some iron keys, communion silver, and two pews — whose hardness was a source of undergraduate complaints.What was Harvard’s stay in Concord like? Interpretations vary. Harvard historian Samuel Eliot Morison called the interlude “a not unpleasant Babylonian Captivity at the future shrine of New England letters.” Historian and poet Charles A. Wagner wrote that “one hundred students were spread through little Concord’s taverns, homes, meetinghouse and courthouse, to the unexpected joy of the Concord maidens.”But some documents intimate that Concord was no picnic. Students were bored by country life, supplies were scant, smallpox hovered, and the winter of 1775-1776 was harsh. Rented rooms were chilly and distant from makeshift classrooms. The fall and spring vacations were canceled. By April, 1776, a Harvard resolution noted “the prevailing Discontent” among undergraduates “on account of their being detained at Concord.”Part of the unhappiness was that Concord was crowded. By March, 1776, the town’s population had swelled to 1,900 — 25 percent higher than the year before. The Provincial Congress had ordered towns in Massachusetts to take in Boston’s poor fleeing the British occupation. Concord’s quota for the poor was 66, but it found room for 82. The Harvard undergraduates in many ways were simply among the displaced persons.The British surrendered Boston in March, 1776, but the American troops who had bivouacked around Harvard Yard inevitably left a trail of damages when they moved south.  The soldiers whom Harvard President Samuel Langdon called a “glorious army of freemen,” tore off the roof of Harvard Hall — 1,000 pounds of metal – to melt into bullets. They stripped brass doorknobs and box locks out of the buildings, along with interior woodwork.  In 1778, Harvard petitioned the Massachusetts House of Representatives, listing losses down to the shilling and pence. The College was awarded the sum of 417 pounds.Permission for the College to reoccupy Harvard Yard came on June 11, 1776. The next day, Langdon wrote a formal letter of thanks to Concord town officials. It included the hope that there had been no “incivilities or indecencies of behavior.” That same month, the College elected to pay Concord, for its trouble, the sum of 10 pounds.To learn more about Harvard’s celebration and history, visit the 375th anniversary website.last_img read more

"Harvard’s year of exile"

How much downtime can your credit union tolerate?

first_img 6SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr Downtime comes in all shapes and sizes. Whether it’s from a catastrophic storm or fire, a data center outage, malware or even a careless mistake. No one is totally safe, and it isn’t a question of if, but instead when it will strike.With that being said, how much downtime can your credit union tolerate?Datto, our partner in Disaster Recovery, recently compiled an article regarding downtime, and sited a survey of 391 IT professionals regarding their data protection technology. The companies surveyed included mid-market organizations (100 to 999 employees) and enterprise organizations (1,000 employees or more) in North America. Not credit unions directly, but the information from the survey can most definitely be applied to multiple organizations, including the financial sector.According to their research, the amount of tolerable downtime slightly varies but has a similar trend. A combined 65 percent of survey responses indicated they can tolerate less than one hour of downtime. When broken down to specific responses, 22 percent could tolerate less than 15 minutes, another 22 percent said 15 minutes to one hour, and 21 percent said one hour to less than two hours. While there is some variation, everyone agrees that the less downtime the better. While downtime may affect different sizes and companies in various ways, it’s always negative. And no doubt, when it comes to credit unions and regulated industries, the amount of downtime tolerated must be as little as possible. continue reading »last_img read more

"How much downtime can your credit union tolerate?"

Beat writer Q&A: Sam Blum of the Daily Progress breaks down the dominant Cavaliers

first_img Comments Published on January 8, 2018 at 11:24 pm Contact Sam: [email protected] | @Sam4TR Syracuse (12-4, 1-2 Atlantic Coast) tips off against Virginia (14-1, 3-0) on Tuesday at 8 p.m. in John Paul Jones Arena. The Orange is coming off its first back-to-back losses of the season, on the road to Wake Forest and at home to a depleted Notre Dame squad. Meanwhile, UVA has steamrolled through conference play with its top-ranked defense, most recently holding North Carolina, one of the nation’s best offensive teams, to 49 points in the Cavs’ win on Saturday. Now, Syracuse has to find a way to overcome Virginia for the third straight year.The Daily Orange spoke with the Daily Progress’ Sam Blum, who previously worked at The D.O. and now covers Virginia athletics.The Daily Orange: When Syracuse’s struggling offense meets Virginia’s top-ranked defense, are there any cracks Syracuse can find in the pack-line? How many points does the Orange muster?Sam Blum: I think the whole point of the pack-line is that even one crack makes it totally ineffective. Right now, there aren’t many cracks. And it’s interesting how versatile it’s proven to be. Virginia has been going more and more with smaller lineups, featuring De’Andre Hunter (basically a guard) at the power forward position. Against North Carolina, UVA had a host of different players guarding Joel Berry. The point being, players are able to come in somewhat interchangeably, and still be effective. Isaiah Wilkins might be the best defensive player Virginia has ever had – and that’s saying something. The Cavaliers have held seven opponents under 50 points this season, most recently the defending national champions. Luke Maye, Ky Bowman and Ahmed Hill, elite scorers, have all had season-worst games against Virginia. How many points does Syracuse get? With such an non-diverse offense, I’d guess 45 points.The D.O.: Virginia is 14-1 and undefeated in league play despite being unranked in preseason polls. Why is this team so much better than expected?AdvertisementThis is placeholder textS.B.: UVA lost four scholarship players. Three transferred and one graduated. Not a single player who averaged in double figures returned. It makes sense that the predictions weren’t super positive. So, it’s ironic to think that UVA is one of the deepest teams in college basketball. The emergence of Hunter. The speed and scoring ability of Nigel Johnson. Kyle Guy’s growth as a scorer, and Devon Hall playing with elite efficiency for the first time in his career. Everyone’s just a little better than expected. With the defensive foundation the program already had, there’s little reason to think this start is a fluke.The D.O.: Syracuse has stunned Virginia in their last two meetings — Boeheim’s 1000th* win and the 2016 Elite Eight — by ratcheting up full-court pressure and flustering the Cavs. Is UVA expecting the same if Syracuse trails this year, and is the team any better prepared to handle it?S.B.: I mentioned Nigel Johnson in that last answer. He’s a graduate transfer, the first-ever in Tony Bennett’s career. And Bennett brought him on because of his speed. Because Virginia could be exposed when the game sped up. But that’s not the case anymore. The Cavaliers can play with tempo. They beat two pressing teams in Virginia Tech and VCU, and played really well against No. 2 West Virginia, the lone loss on the campaign. A big part of that is having Johnson. Syracuse definitely has more length in their press, which makes it tougher to break. That said, UVA seems able to handle pressure defense in the backcourt.The D.O.: Which player might surprise Syracuse fans and have a big impact in the game?S.B.: De’Andre Hunter. No doubt about that. He doesn’t have the numbers, but his last few games have been big. He has different athleticism than any other Virginia player. He can shoot. He can defend as well as, if not better, than any of his teammates. Against UNC, he had a wild dunk over Joel Berry and said afterward that when he took off, he hoped Berry would jump too, knowing he could dunk on him. So, he has a little moxie too. People who watch Virginia basketball sometimes say it’s boring. There’s nothing boring about Hunter.The D.O.: What didn’t we ask that Syracuse fans should be thinking about?S.B.: One Virginia player who played really well against Syracuse the last few games was London Perrantes. He excelled from the 3-point line. The question is if Ty Jerome will fill that role on Tuesday. He’s a spot-up shooter, more so than catch-and-shoot. So, it would make sense that Jerome could have a big game. It’ll be interesting to see how much the Cavaliers rely on 3-point shooting. It was a crucial part of the big Virginia Tech win, but not a prevalent part of this offense overall.center_img Facebook Twitter Google+last_img read more

"Beat writer Q&A: Sam Blum of the Daily Progress breaks down the dominant Cavaliers"