Harvard’s year of exile

first_imgAs Harvard celebrates its 375th anniversary, the Gazette is examining key moments and developments over the University’s broad and compelling history.Lexington and Concord. April 19, 1775. Where and when the Revolutionary War started is well known.Not so well known is the fact that Harvard played an important, if odd, role afterward in the early days of the Revolution, turning its campus over to the nascent American army. On May 1, 1775, undergraduates were dismissed and given an early summer vacation. Classes resumed on Oct. 5 in Concord, 20 miles away — the beginning of a wartime academic sojourn.Student safety was a factor in the move, said historian John L. Bell, a specialist in the early days of the war, but so was a worry that students would consort with rough and tumble soldiers. “There was discipline,” he said of the American army gathering in Cambridge. “But it wasn’t college discipline.”Harvard’s move to Concord also served a practical military purpose. Provincial troops fortifying Cambridge during the siege of Boston needed places to stay. The five Harvard buildings were used to house 1,600 soldiers — more than the population of Cambridge at the time. Hollis and Massachusetts halls each held 640 soldiers; Stoughton Hall (razed in 1781) was home to 240; and tiny Holden Chapel bunked 160. Harvard Hall — the College buttery, library, and social space — served a similar function. Tents and rude barracks sprang up in Harvard Yard, and soldiers built a defensive breastwork on high ground near Quincy Street, where Lamont Library now stands.Harvard was not on the front lines, said Bell, since most of the nearest fortifications were built in East Cambridge and parts of what is now Somerville. The new war did not bring “physical disruption” to Harvard, he said, so much as “social disruption.”Social disruption also accompanied Harvard’s move to Concord. The library was shipped there, along with the College fire engine, the museum, and even the Ellicott Regulator Clock, a key item of “philosophical apparatus” valued for its precise astronomical timekeeping.Harvard students took rooms in Concord where they could, including a dozen who boarded with Dr. Joseph Lee, who was under house arrest as a British spy. Classes — reduced to two recitations a day in winter — were held in a deserted grammar school, and in Concord’s courthouse and the First Parish meetinghouse.Jenny Rankin, M.Div. ’88, one of First Parish’s current ministers (and the first woman to hold the title), is intrigued by “the thought of this small, sleepy town being invaded by boys.”  Harvard’s Concord interlude has been much on her mind, since First Parish celebrates its own 375th anniversary this year. The Concord church opened in 1636, the same year as Harvard College.The meetinghouse where Harvard’s exiled students gathered burned down in 1900, said Rankin, but a few artifacts remain: an oaken beam, some iron keys, communion silver, and two pews — whose hardness was a source of undergraduate complaints.What was Harvard’s stay in Concord like? Interpretations vary. Harvard historian Samuel Eliot Morison called the interlude “a not unpleasant Babylonian Captivity at the future shrine of New England letters.” Historian and poet Charles A. Wagner wrote that “one hundred students were spread through little Concord’s taverns, homes, meetinghouse and courthouse, to the unexpected joy of the Concord maidens.”But some documents intimate that Concord was no picnic. Students were bored by country life, supplies were scant, smallpox hovered, and the winter of 1775-1776 was harsh. Rented rooms were chilly and distant from makeshift classrooms. The fall and spring vacations were canceled. By April, 1776, a Harvard resolution noted “the prevailing Discontent” among undergraduates “on account of their being detained at Concord.”Part of the unhappiness was that Concord was crowded. By March, 1776, the town’s population had swelled to 1,900 — 25 percent higher than the year before. The Provincial Congress had ordered towns in Massachusetts to take in Boston’s poor fleeing the British occupation. Concord’s quota for the poor was 66, but it found room for 82. The Harvard undergraduates in many ways were simply among the displaced persons.The British surrendered Boston in March, 1776, but the American troops who had bivouacked around Harvard Yard inevitably left a trail of damages when they moved south.  The soldiers whom Harvard President Samuel Langdon called a “glorious army of freemen,” tore off the roof of Harvard Hall — 1,000 pounds of metal – to melt into bullets. They stripped brass doorknobs and box locks out of the buildings, along with interior woodwork.  In 1778, Harvard petitioned the Massachusetts House of Representatives, listing losses down to the shilling and pence. The College was awarded the sum of 417 pounds.Permission for the College to reoccupy Harvard Yard came on June 11, 1776. The next day, Langdon wrote a formal letter of thanks to Concord town officials. It included the hope that there had been no “incivilities or indecencies of behavior.” That same month, the College elected to pay Concord, for its trouble, the sum of 10 pounds.To learn more about Harvard’s celebration and history, visit the 375th anniversary website.last_img read more

"Harvard’s year of exile"

Calvert-Lewin spoils West Ham owner’s Anniversary party

first_img Promoted Content6 Secret Origin Stories Of Modern FoodsPretty Awesome Shows That Just Got CanceledWhich Country Is The Most Romantic In The World?10 Most Evil Female Characters In Disney MoviesBest & Worst Celebrity Endorsed Games Ever Made11 Most Immersive Game To Play On Your Table Top6 Best ’90s Action Movies To Watch Today7 Truly Incredible Facts About Black HolesWhat Happens To Your Brain When You Play Too Much Video Games?5 Of The World’s Most Unique Theme Parks7 Reasons Why You Might Want To Become A VegetarianContemplate Life At These 10 Stargazing Locations West Ham jubilation cut short with Everton draw In fact, “10 years of failure” was the verdict of the hundreds of disenchanted fans who gathered outside the stadium to protest against the owners before the match. Yet things were looking brighter inside the ground, at least for the majority of the first half, against an Everton side still finding their feet under Carlo Ancelotti. Hammers boss David Moyes, facing his old club, had called for his players to give record signing Sebastien Haller more service and Mark Noble did just that, standing up an early cross which the French striker headed narrowly wide. Read AlsoEPL: Arteta’s Arsenal held again by late Sheffield leveller The Toffees could considered their point away a good one as they still remained with their Nigerian international Alex Iwobi and Andre Gomez among others on the injury list. West Ham owners David Sullivan and David Gold had their Happy Anniversary party truncated on Saturday after the club settled for a draw against visiting Everton. The weekend marked 10 years since Sullivan and Gold bought West Ham,and the duo were hoping for a resounding victory that will add icing on the cake. Issa Diop’s 40th minute goal had raised hope that the dream is about to come true, but it was soon shattered after Dominic Calvert-Lewin  grabbed an equaliser just four minutes later to register his 11th goal of the season. West Ham owners are not happy with the way things have turned out for the club admitting in their programme notes that the club have not progressed on the pitch as much as they had hoped in that time. It was hard to argue against that sentiment as West Ham were 17th when they took over, and a decade on they kicked off against Everton in precisely the same position.Advertisement FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail分享 Loading… last_img read more

"Calvert-Lewin spoils West Ham owner’s Anniversary party"

UW Athletics: A look at controversial calls in Wisconsin sports history

first_imgAny die-hard Badger fan remembers the blown call from when the University of Wisconsin men’s basketball team lost to Duke in the 2015 NCAA Men’s Basketball National Championship Game.With just under two minutes remaining in the game and the Badgers trailing by just five, refs called the ball out of bounds on Wisconsin guard Bronson Koenig. Refs immediately grouped together and decided to look at the play closer on the monitor.Despite the fact that the ball was clearly touched by Duke forward Justise Winslow, officials did not overturn the call and awarded the ball to the Blue Devils. Duke would score on the ensuing possession and ultimately win the game, 68–63.Just days later, NCAA Vice President Dan Gavitt stated that the call was, in fact, incorrect, potentially costing Wisconsin the game and the championship.National championship breakdown: Wisconsin vs. DukeINDIANAPOLIS – One of most historic seasons in Wisconsin men’s basketball history ended in not-so-great fashion for the Badgers, as Read…While Wisconsin fans have a right to be upset about the loss, the refs’ error is one of a number of major blown calls in sports. Blown calls are fairly common in sports thanks to simple human error, but there have been several notable calls/no calls in UW athletics in recent years. With that, let’s take a look at a few:2011 — Big Ten Football Championship GameIn the inaugural Big Ten Football Championship Game, Wisconsin led the Michigan State Spartans by a field goal with 1:37 to go in the game. Wisconsin sent out punter Brad Nortman on fourth down, giving the Spartans a chance to tie or win the game on the ensuing possession.During the punt, however, Nortman got nicked by a Spartan defender after getting the punt off and dramatically fell to the ground. Nortman’s performance got the officials to throw a flag and give the Badgers an automatic first down, allowing Wisconsin to run out the clock and win the game, 42–39.With the win, the Badgers got an automatic bid to the Rose Bowl, where they would lose to the Oregon Ducks, 45–38.Clutch 2nd-half, 3rd-down conversions carry Wisconsin to victoryINDIANAPOLIS – At halftime of the Big Ten Championship Game, the Wisconsin football team couldn’t help but feel a little Read…2013 — Bizarre loss to Arizona State footballIn an early-season game against Arizona State, the No. 20 Badgers trailed the Sun Devils with less than a minute to go, but had an opportunity to kick a game-winning field goal. Badger quarterback Joel Stave rolled out to his left and took a knee, setting up the field goal opportunity inside the 20-yard line.This is where the confusion began.Players from both teams stood around confused, and ASU players even dove onto the ball. Officials did not stop the clock when this happened, however, and the clock ran out before the Badgers were able to get another snap off.Stave and the rest of the team tried to argue the call, but the officials left the field, leaving Wisconsin on the wrong side of a 32–30 loss.UW Athletics: An examination into argument over student-athlete compensationThe University of Wisconsin Athletics Department will likely face an issue in the coming years that is becoming more common Read…2015 — Final Four NCAA Tournament GameIn the Final Four game just before the loss to Duke in the championship, Wisconsin benefited from a late blown call against the seemingly unbeatable Kentucky Wildcats.Wisconsin trailed by two with less than three minutes left in regulation when Badger forward Nigel Hayes air-balled a short shot in front of the hoop as the shot clock expired. Hayes grabbed his own air-ball and put up another shot that managed go in, but it was clear that the basket shouldn’t have counted.Kentucky’s players immediately signaled for a travel, probably not realizing that it was also a shot-clock violation, but officials did not stop play and the game stood tied at 60. Wisconsin would go on to beat Kentucky 71–64, ending the Wildcats’ perfect season one game short of a championship.Final Four breakdown: Wisconsin vs. KentuckyINDIANAPOLIS – The Wisconsin men’s basketball team handed the once-undefeated Kentucky Wildcats their first loss of the season in Saturday Read…2019 — Targeting call against safety Eric BurrellThis is the call that is probably most fresh on the minds of Badger fans.Despite this play being overshadowed by the targeting penalty and ejection of Reggie Pearson Jr. just a few plays later, this targeting call was much more controversial in terms of officiating.In a blowout win over Michigan earlier this season, safety Eric Burrell went in for the tackle on Wolverine quarterback Dylan McCaffrey, who decided to slide. With the slide, Burrell inadvertently had helmet-to-helmet contact with McCaffrey, drawing a flag from the officials and resulting in an ejection of Burrell for supposedly targeting the quarterback.While this play had no real impact on the outcome of the game, the call was definitely a mistake in the eyes of many, including several NFL players.Looking at the blown calls presented here, it’s clear that the mistakes of officials can go either way depending on the luck of each side on any given night. Unfortunately, human error exists in officiating and will continue to exist so long as referees are human, which may not be the case in the future.last_img read more

"UW Athletics: A look at controversial calls in Wisconsin sports history"

Tenerife seeks its ‘golden goal’ of the season

first_imgFor this Monday the goal has been proposed from outside the area of Robert Mazán to Albacete in Carlos Belmonte and in Nikola Sipcic at Ponferradina heeled. By Tuesday, they will be that of Luis Milla to Rayo Vallecano Y that of Dani Gómez at Sporting in Gijón. On Wednesday you will choose between that of Borja Lasso to Racing Santander Y Joselu’s against Sporting in the Heliodoro.On Thursday, he will compete Álex Bermejo’s to Racing Y the one from Lasso to Almería, whereas on Friday the options are that of Suso Santana against Albacete in early January and that of Dani Gómez to Extremadura, in Almendralejo. There will be six selected goals that will fight to continue advancing between Monday the 13th and Wednesday the 15th of April. On Saturday 18 and Sunday 19 the order of the best three will be chosen.The entire contest will be operational on the official channel of Twitter @CDTOficial, where the different polls will be published so that the Blue and Whites fans vote for their favorite goals. While waiting to restore the situation, Tenerife tries to keep their fans entertained through its website. Several parties from past campaigns have already hung on their YouTube channel or have encouraged the little ones to draw. Now, the proposal is to choose ‘the blue and white gold goal’ this season. For it, the entity has selected twelve of the best goals achieved and it will be the team’s fan who will vote and leaving on the road the one who has the least acceptance. There will be a first phase in which two will be put on per day. The winner will qualify for the second round and from there will reach the final the best three of which will be the oro golden goal ’, the‘ silver ’and the‘ bronze ’.last_img read more

"Tenerife seeks its ‘golden goal’ of the season"


first_imgA Letterkenny teenager said he was forced to go on a crime spree to pay back money he owed to drug dealers.Matthew Lafferty stole handbags, burgled houses and robbed from shops because he owed money for drugs.Lafferty, 19, appeared at Letterkenny District Court today facing 26 charges since July 2009. The court heard that on one occasion, the father of one was found hiding in a wardrobe after burgling two houses.Two weeks ago, while on bail, Lafferty knocked a woman to the ground in Letterkenny, and snatched her handbag.He was found later by a description given by a member of the public and by CCTV footage.Solicitor Patsy Gallagher said Lafferty of Fairgreen, Letterkenny, had found himself in a quagmire of drugs.He added that he was living in fear of drug dealers and only robbed because he owed money for the drugs including cocaine, cannabis and crystal meth.The court heard that many of the crimes were committed while Lafferty was out on bail.Judge Paul Kelly said he accepted that Lafferty was an easy target but that he had to protect the public.“I have a commitment to protect the innocent victims who have suffered as a result of these crimes,” said Judge Kelly.He sentenced Lafferty to 10 months detention at St Pats Institution for Young Offenders for six burglary charges and fined him a total of €1,600.EndsMAN WENT ON CRIME SPREE TO PAY DRUG DEALERS was last modified: March 12th, 2012 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:drugsLetterkenny District CourtMatthew Laffertylast_img read more