FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享Wall Street Journal:Federal trade officials are recommending that the Trump administration impose an import tariff of up to 35% on solar panels to protect U.S. solar manufacturers from low-price imports that have undercut the companies’ ability to compete.Members of the U.S. International Trade Commission outlined their various recommendations Tuesday, which also included import quotas and a licensing fee. They must now send them to the White House, which has until January to decide what, if any, actions to take.The recommendations come several months after two embattled solar-panel makers, Suniva Inc. and SolarWorld Americas Inc., petitioned the ITC for a tariff on imported solar cells, the component of a solar panel that converts sunlight to electricity and which both companies make. Suniva and SolarWorld had also sought either a floor price on solar modules or a quota on imported cells and modules in order to help domestic manufacturers compete against the imports, mostly coming from Asia.On Tuesday, a majority of trade commissioners recommended the president implement tariffs on imported solar panels and cells. But the size of the tariffs varied, and fell short of both the 25 cents a watt tariff that Suniva and SolarWorld had requested on cells and the 32 cents requested for panels. Panel installers and others in the solar industry counter that a tariff would raise prices for consumers and hurt demand for solar arrays that were made more affordable by cheap imports. Both sides have claimed thousands of American jobs are on the line.Abigail Ross Hopper, chief executive of the Solar Energy Industries Association, a trade group that has opposed the petition, said she was heartened that the ITC recommendations fell short of what the companies had requested, but still sees them as being “intensely harmful” to the broader U.S. solar industry.More ($): U.S. Trade Panel Backs Solar Tariffs U.S. Trade Panel Recommends Up to 35% Tariff on Imported Solar Panels
Port Augusta paves the way in coal-to-renewables transition FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享The Guardian:The largest solar farm in the southern hemisphere lies on arid land at the foot of the Flinders Ranges, more than 300 km north of Adelaide. If that sounds remote, it doesn’t do justice to how removed local residents feel from what currently qualifies as debate in Canberra.As government MPs and national newspapers thundered over whether taxpayers should underwrite new coal-fired power, mauling advice from government agencies as they went, residents of South Australia’s Upper Spencer Gulf region have been left to ponder why decision-makers weren’t paying attention to what is happening in their backyard.In mid-2016, this region was on the brink, hit by the closure and near collapse of coal and steel plants. Now it’s on the cusp of a wave of construction that investors and community leaders say should place the region at the vanguard of green innovation—not just in Australia but globally. There has been an explosion in investment, with $5bn spread over the next five years. There are 13 projects in various stages of development, with more than 3,000 construction and 200 ongoing jobs. The economy of this once-deflated region has been transformed and those who live here are starting to feel hopeful again.The Port Augusta mayor, Sam Johnson, a 32-year-old former Liberal member, is continually surprised at how resistant some are to the idea that the energy environment has changed. “You might choose to ignore what’s happening here now because we’re out of sight, out of mind, but the reality is that what’s happening here is going to be happening on the eastern seaboard in the next 10 years,” he says.In simple terms, the Upper Spencer Gulf transition story goes like this. Port Augusta was a coal town, home to the state’s only two lignite–or brown coal–plants, Playford B and Northern. Playford B, ageing and failing, was mothballed in 2012. Northern, the larger and younger of the two, closed in May 2016 when owner Alinta Energy decided it was no longer economically viable. The Leigh Creek mine that supplied it, by then offering up mostly low-quality coal, shut at the same time. About 400 workers at the plant and the mine lost their jobs. Roughly a third retired, a third found other employment locally and a third had to leave town to find work.At the same time, further around the gulf, the steel town of Whyalla was teetering precipitously after the owner, Arrium, put the mill in voluntary administration facing debts of more than $4bn.Yet as the doom hit, there were also rays of hope as several clean power projects were mooted for the surrounding area.Two years on, the Port Augusta city council lists 13 projects at varying stages of development. And Whyalla has unearthed a potential savior in British billionaire industrialist Sanjeev Gupta, who not only bought the steelworks but promised to expand it while also spending what will likely end up being $1.5bn in solar, hydro and batteries to make it viable. Gupta says the logic behind his investment in solar and storage is simple: it’s now cheaper than coal.Johnson says: “You can resist change as much as you like, but the reality is, if you’re in a community that has a coal-fired power station, its days are numbered. The market is dictating that change whether we like it or not. My advice is: learn from the Port Augusta experience. I wish the federal government would.”More: Life after coal: the South Australian city leading the way
FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享Reuters:A Montana tribe this week blasted the Trump administration for seeking to overturn an Obama-era moratorium on federal coal leasing without consulting it, saying the move violated its treaty rights and would have major impacts on its land.The criticism from Northern Cheyenne President Rynalea Whiteman Pena, in a letter to Interior Secretary David Bernhardt on May 28, reflects ongoing tensions between Native American tribes and the Trump administration over its energy policy that first erupted over a North Dakota pipeline project in 2017.Pena’s letter came in reaction to a draft environmental assessment by the Interior Department’s Bureau of Land Management last Wednesday that concluded that restarting federal coal leasing would have no environmental impact, and that it was not necessary to consult tribes before doing so.“Your department’s statement in the environmental assessment that no consultation is necessary with affected Indian tribes violates your sacred trust obligation to the Northern Cheyenne Tribe and other Tribes, undermines the formation of sound public policy and constitutes a shortsighted and unwise approach to land management,” Pena wrote.The BLM was required to do the assessment after a federal court ruled that the Interior Department’s 2017 decision to restart federal coal leasing was illegal without an analysis under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA).Approximately 426 million tons of federal coal are located near the Northern Cheyenne Reservation at the Decker and Spring Creek mines in Montana. But Pena said in the letter that the tribe would not reap the economic benefits of mining.More: Montana tribe rips Trump administration over federal coal leasing Northern Cheyenne president blasts administration’s effort to end ban on federal coal leasing
FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享The Jakarta Post:The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has said it is staying away from coal-related projects in Indonesia and continues to open itself to gas and renewable energy investments, joining the wave of diversion by hundreds of financial institutions around the globe.Yuichiro Yoi, unit head for Indonesia at ADB’s private sector operations department, told The Jakarta Post that economic factors and public sentiment were the two reasons to avoid coal investment. “The world’s moving away from coal, that’s the sentiment I can’t change or deny, that is the sentiment in the majority of the world. I just have to play along,” he said on the sidelines of a gas exhibition in Jakarta on Thursday.“If it [coal power plants] becomes a stranded asset, it is a credit risk. Going forward it’ll be more difficult to do a project with coal. Now you not only worry about reputation but also have to worry about the risk of losing money.”Reports from global energy think tank Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis (IEEFA) in February showed that over 100 globally significant financial institutions have divested from thermal coal, including 40 percent of the top 40 global banks and 20 globally significant insurers. They are increasingly reluctant to invest in companies related to fossil fuels as the commodities are deemed unsustainable amid rising pressure to limit environmental damage.Yuichiro further said that to date the ADB had yet to issue a written policy against coal, like many other global financiers, but experience has shown him that coal-related projects are hard to be approved by the bank’s system. “If there’s any chance to do a coal-fired power plant, there’s a need to be an extremely good story in terms of impact, that outweighs the negative connotations of doing a project with coal,” he said, adding that the ADB only has gas and renewable energy projects in Indonesia, particularly geothermal power plants.Cumulative investment from the ADB in Indonesia’s energy sector has reached $7.3 billion and disbursed across 102 projects, the bank’s data shows.More: World moves away from coal, and so does ADB ADB’s Yoi: Development bank backing away from new coal investments in Indonesia
Massachusetts may become third state to begin planning for transition away from gas heating FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享Utility Dive:Massachusetts Attorney General Maura Healey on Thursday called for the Department of Public Utilities (DPU) to investigate the future of the state’s natural gas industry “to protect ratepayers and ensure a safe, reliable, and fair transition away from reliance on natural gas and other fossil fuels.”Massachusetts has set a legally binding statewide limit of net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, which Healey said would require “sizeable reductions in its use of fossil fuels to achieve.”Healey’s call for an investigation of the gas sector follows similar actions in New York and California, which are also looking to transition away from fossil fuels. Advocates say the moves are overdue but indicate an important shift.In January, the California Public Utilities Commission opened a rulemaking proceeding to consider challenges relating to the state’s gas infrastructure safety and reliability while it pursues decarbonization. And in March, the New York Public Service Commission opened an investigation to consider issues related to gas utilities’ planning procedures.Clean energy advocates say the investigation will consider how Massachusetts can transition from gas-fueled heat and power in a way that does not leave lower-income residents responsible for stranded costs. “Getting off of gas without planning is going to be messy and inequitable,” Sierra Club’s Massachusetts director Deb Pasternak told Utility Dive.The next step, said Pasternak, is for the DPU to determine if it will open a new docket for the investigation.[Robert Walton]More: Massachusetts attorney general urges state examine shift from natural gas heating
FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享PV Magazine:German renewables company BayWa re has begun constructing a 64.4 MW solar plant in Witnica, a town in western Poland near the German border.The project, set to be completed this year, will not benefit from Poland’s renewables incentives policy and will instead sell power to an unspecified industrial client under a yet-to-be-finalized power purchase agreement (PPA), BayWa re said.“Following our successful completion, in recent years, of projects in Spain and Germany – which were realized without subsidies – we have now reached the point where photovoltaic energy is marketable in Poland, too,” said Benedikt Ortmann, global director of solar projects at BayWa re.Few solar PPAs have been negotiated in Poland to date, with the first announced in June last year by the PGE Energia Odnawialna renewables business of state-owned utility Polska Grupa Energetyczna (PGE). The power company said at the time, a 5 MW, 10ha solar plant would be built outside the national renewables auction scheme on land owned by chemicals company Grupa Azoty Siarkopol in Świętokrzyskie Osiek, a town in the Staszów county of Świętokrzyskie province, in southern-central Poland. PGE in September signed a letter of intent with silver and copper miner KGHM Polska Miedź SA for 500 MW of solar generation capacity on the latter’s sites.Further unsubsidized projects have been announced by coal companies including Poland’s fourth largest energy business, Enea, which will build a 30 MW solar plant for the Bogdanka coal mine it holds a majority stake in. In July last year, energy company Tauron Polska Energia SA said it would install ground-mounted PV at its disused sites. Electric utility Zespół Elektrowni Pątnów-Adamów-Konin SA said in November, it would deploy a large scale PV plant at a depleted area of the extensive Adamów brown coal mine in Turek county.Poland could reach its target of 7.8 GW of solar capacity by 2030 – as outlined in the National Plan for Energy and Climate – as early as the middle of the decade, according to a recent report by the Instytut Energetyki Odnawialnej.[Emiliano Bellini]More: Construction begins on 64 MW unsubsidized Polish solar plant German developer BayWa re to build Poland’s first subsidy-free solar project
Photos by Randy GrayOver the course of its 2,178 winding miles, the Appalachian Trail passes only once under a manmade structure: a five-foot long, roofed breezeway belonging to what is now the Mountain Crossings store and hostel.Completed in 1937—the same year Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Civil Conservation Corps finished the A.T.—the building originally served as living quarters for corpsman working to reforest the Chattahoochee National Forest.It’s located about 31 miles from the A.T.’s southern terminus, overlooking Georgia’s Neels Gap. From the first adventurous spirit to conquer the A.T.—Earl Shaffer, aka Crazy #1, in 1948—to the nearly 2,000 hikers following in his footsteps every year since, they’ve all passed through the Mountain Crossings breezeway. Serving as the first official mail drop, hostel, supply-station, and, therefore, crisis management center for would-be northbound thru-hikers, with its staff of authentic, 100K-plus-trail-miles-under-their-belt gurus, Mountain Crossings has become not only a thriving boutique retailer, but a haven for an entire subculture.But how, you might ask, was this cult established? Enter Winton Porter, a man whose tiny, miles-from-nowhere store doing over $850,000 in business in 2010, was dubbed by Inc. Magazine: “The smartest businessman on the Appalachian Trail.”The Back StoryBy age 8, whenever the weather was even mildly cooperative, Porter and his father were hitting the woods, weekending in campgrounds all over Georgia. By 9, Porter had trekked the state’s entire 76.4-mile stretch of Appalachian Trail. As a college student, he founded his own business: B. Bumblefoot & Company. “I drove around in my Toyota Tercel,” Porter chuckles, “selling [hand-carved, wooden] hiking sticks out of the back of my car.” Post-graduation, in 1989, Porter finagled a position with outdoor retail behemoth REI, where he commenced to speed-climb the corporate ladder. A decade later found him running an Atlanta-based store for the company that would eventually become Dick’s Sporting Goods.However, despite this resume of success, disillusionment set in.Then something happened: “In 2001 the opportunity train starts riding by and I jumped on,” he said.For Porter, this entailed: 1) a resignation letter stating, “My dream begins now.” And, 2) cashing in the 401k, ravaging the savings, selling the house in Atlanta, packing his wife and daughter into a U-Haul, and buying Mountain Crossings.Then What Happened?In the thirteen years following this mammoth, game-changer of a decision, Porter earned a reputation as a “backpack-purging, tent-selling, hostel-running, first-aid-dispensing, lost-kid finding, argument-settling, romance-fixing, chili-making shopkeeper.” In 2010, he was named Georgia Author of the Year for his memoir, Just Passin’ Thru. And meanwhile, in the process, Mountain Crossings was becoming what Porter describes as a “place to recharge the soul, a place to be understood when other people think that adventures into the woods is madness, insanity.”“It’s a karma-meets-commerce approach,” writes veteran hiker and Backpacker Magazine contributor, Jim Gorman. “Porter runs his business… like an extension of the A.T. community.”To get an idea of how this philosophy translates into practice, consider Mountain Crossings’ signature service: The Shakedown.By the time northbound thru-hikers reach Mountain Crossings, they’ve trekked 30 miles, and, for whatever reason—say, bad shoes and an 80-plus pound pack—many arrive in crisis.“They’ve told their friends they’re going to walk the A.T., and now they’re entertaining the word ‘quit,’” explains Porter.Thus it is that, each year, like a crew of motley superheroes, the Mountain Crossings staff swoops in, sifting through hundreds of backpacks, helping hikers cut 9,000 pounds of unnecessary weight. The sessions typically net about 12.5 pounds in trimmed excess, and require 1-4 hours to complete.“Spend that much time with a customer and you’d get reprimanded or fired at most stores,” says Porter. “For us, it creates tremendous loyalty.”With something like 200 photos of former customers poised atop Katahdin scotch-taped to the walls, it’s a point well made.Eulogies and the Newest ChapterIn 2009, like many somewhat recent college graduates, Georganna Morton and Logan Seamon found themselves putting in time at jobs they couldn’t stand.“We had to do something different,” Morton says, “but we didn’t know what exactly.”So they sold everything they owned and hit the A.T. And, like every other northbound thru-hiker, they passed through Mountain Crossings, where they first met Winton Porter, got the shakedown, crashed at the hostel, and moved along.Months later, after conquering Katahdin, the duo found themselves once more in limbo, faced with the question of “What now?” It was at this point Georganna more-or-less randomly attended an outdoor trade show with her father. While at the show, once again, she happened to run into Porter. After listening to a somewhat somber description of the couple’s search for a place to land, Winton offered Georganna, Logan, and their dog positions at Mountain Crossings.“I said ‘I’ll have to think about it,’” recalls Georganna, laughing. “To which Winton replied, ‘No, you’ll be there on Friday.’ It was Tuesday. So I thought about it a second. Then I said, ‘But where will we live?’ Winton grinned: ‘We’ve got room at the store.’”Four years later, in December of 2013, engaged, George and Logan offered to buy the store.“There’d been other offers,” says Georganna, “but when we came to him, it was like family, it was a different matter entirely.”In a YouTube farewell video, Porter explains the one move he never thought he’d make: “My time has come to walk on, to start a new chapter. In Georganna and Logan, the trail angels could not have brought a better team to carry on the essence and the flavor that makes this place so incredibly special to the thousands of those that pass through.”So maybe it’s like Lumpy, a long-term Mountain Crossings employee, says: “It’s a cosmic force that draws people here. It just feels like all the cosmic tumblers come into place.”And Porter? Well, there are rumors of the Caribbean, a second book. Regardless, like The Dude, undoubtedly, he will abide.
Adriene Levknecht has a split identity.In one world, Adriene is an employee for Greenville County EMS, driving ambulances and saving lives on 12 or 24 hour shifts. Once her shift is over, Levknecht steps into an entirely different world of raging rivers, 30-foot waterfalls, and elite international competition. She is one of the best female kayakers in the world.Much like Clark Kent, Adriene steps away from work and into a phone booth (or more commonly her Subaru CrossTrek), and emerges a whitewater superhero. At the young age of 25, Levknecht has already achieved a Bronze Medal in the World Freestyle Championships, won the elite Green River Narrows Race five times straight, dominated the Vail [Teva, now GoPro] Mountain Games creek race, and run top tier rivers around the world. She has also done incredible charitable things like shave her head to raise money for First Descents, an organization created to help cancer survivors.Adriene’s larger-than-life personality seems somehow perfectly appropriate for her 5’2” build. Her nickname, “Lil’ A,” makes it particularly sobering for the many men whom she shows up on the water.She could undoubtedly have a successful career as a professional paddler, but prefers sleeping in her own bed every night to “gallivanting around the globe” kayaking.“I like to have separation in my life,” she says. “Kayaking means more to me than traveling the country or the globe working on sponsored projects or trying to win competitions. I’m in this sport for the long haul, and I find that if I can separate work from play, I feel less likely to get burned out in either.”This is not to say that she doesn’t put in her time, though. In an average week, Adriene kayaks 5-25 hours (depending on the season), spends eight hours in the yoga studio, four in the CrossFit gym, and still resolves to make it home for dinner every evening.“I usually get up around 5:30 am for work, but honestly I get up earlier on my days off. I try to take advantage as much as possible of every opportunity, and my time at work is usually my recovery. I can rest sore muscles and hit the reset button on my brain. This allows me to come back fresh.”Next time a tiny girl with infinite energy blazes past you on the river, on a mountain bike trail, or in the gym, don’t let it hurt your feelings. Adriene busts her butt every single day to operate at the level of a superhero.Advice from Adriene1) Have people in your life who support your passions.2) Just kick ass! Get up and chase your goals. You won’t regret it.3) Go 100% at work as well so that you develop trust and rapport with your boss. It’s way easier to ask for leeway when you’re indispensible.Levknecht SpecsAge – 25Hometown – Greenville, S.C.Employer – Greenville County EMSSpecialty – Whitewater KayakingHobbies – Yoga, Mountain Biking, Lifting WeightsSponsors – LiquidLogic Kayaks, Kokatat, Werner Paddles, Shred Ready Helmets, Teva, Jen-ai clothing, Watershed, G-FormAspirations – “Just keep riding the lightning!”
Here in the Southeast, we are blessed with a year round trout fishery. Just like the different seasons of the year, trout behaviors can change dramatically depending on what the weather and water conditions are doing. Many anglers hang their waders up in the winter time, and wait for warmer days of Spring. It’s a shame, because these guys are missing out on some great fishing (with the right approach). Here are a few tips to make your next winter fly fishing trip a success.1. PICK A LOCATION YOU HAVE CONFIDENCE IN.Confidence is everything. Pick a location you are familiar with and have had success in before. Typically when I set out in search of bending a rod in the winter time I rule out those high elevation creeks and blue lines that are so much fun in the Spring and Summer. These types of streams don’t see a lot of sunlight during the winter months, and since they are located up higher in the mountains where air temps are cooler the water temps will be a good bit cooler as well. Bigger watersheds are normally found in lower altitudes, and since the streambed is wider they receive much more sunlight that helps raise water temps which makes the fish more eager to feed. Tail-water fisheries may even be the best bet since they stem from a lake, and water temps remain pretty consistent over all. All this being said, having confidence in where you set out to go might be the most important deciding factor of all. If you know there are fish where you are fishing, all that’s left to do is figure out what they will eat.2. FISH THE APPROPRIATE TYPES OF WATER. So you have arrived at the stream or river you have picked for the day. You have probably got some good memories of certain pools, riffles or runs that you have had success in at different times of the year. That’s a great starting point, but remembering that fish behave differently at different times of year, there are a couple things you can do to maximize your hook up rate. The first thing to do is SLOW DOWN. The fish are there, but they are cold just like you are. They aren’t going to move 10 feet to grab your fly…..this time of the year they may only move a few inches or a couple feet (especially in the morning, or on extremely cold days). Instead of putting a few casts in each likely spot and moving on, put 30 casts in the most likely spots. READ THE WATER…look for places that have drop offs with moderate current running over them. The trout don’t want to expend a lot of energy this time of year, they want to sit in a place where they have access to food drifting in the current, but they don’t want to have to work too hard to stay there. Remember that pool you fished in the fall and caught a bunch of fish in right at the top where the current dumps in? Well the fish are probably still in that pool, but they might not be sitting in that strong current they were in when the water was warmer. Try the tail-out of the pool…is there a deeper channel in that tail out? Is there a current break that makes a nice seam line? 3. LET THE FISH TELL YOU WHAT THEY WANT.For the most part fishing in winter months includes a lot of nymph fishing. Especially during the morning hours when water temps are at their coldest, or on really cold days the trout will typically be deep, and to get strikes you have to put the flies where the fish are. I like fishing tandem nymph rigs during these situations (two nymphs rigged in tandem on your leader). This allows me to play around with my flies and see what the fish are keying in on. Normally, I find myself fishing one bigger fly like a stonefly paired with another smaller nymph or midge that is likely what is most available to the trout at this time of year. Play around with it….if you are confident there are fish in front of you, don’t leave until you are starting to get some strikes. If you catch a fish, make a mental note of what the fish ate and where he ate it, because if you can find another place similar to that one, chances are you will be successful there as well. Don’t get stuck on the nymphs though! Especially in the later months of February we can have some amazing hatches here in the Southern Appalachians. Sometimes you will notice the bugs before you notice the fish feeding on them. If you are seeing bugs, try finding a nice flat pool where you will easily notice any disturbance on the surface…..and then take a seat for a while. If we are talking early Feb, the bugs will probably be small (dark winter stones, midges, or blue winged olives). If this is the case those flat pools are your best bet to taking a fish on top. Look for “dimples”….they won’t be real splashy rises. The tip of their nose or tail might be all that breaks the surface. Try to figure out which it is. If you see the fishes nose come out, your dry fly is the answer, if it’s his tail you’ll want to fish an emerger just under the surface, or hang a zebra midge just under a small dry fly for strike detection. If you are lucky enough to be on the stream in one of those mild late Feb days when temps get in the 50’s or better, have your dry fly box at hand. Blue Quills and Quill Gordons could start coming off at any time. These are probably my favorite hatches of the year, and I think the trout will agree. These are some of the biggest bugs the fish have seen in a long time, and they drop their guard and go to eating. You don’t have to get real technical with it, a traditionally tied imitation in the right size and color will get plenty of attention. Pick a rising fish, take your time to get into position, and make a nice drag free drift to it. So you blew the cast and put the fish down? It happens to all of us. Give that one a few minutes to rest, and once you see him rising again try another shot.4. WORK WITH THE CONDITIONS AT HAND.In a perfect world, we could watch the weather forecast and water conditions, and pick the best day to go fishing. Just remember, the best day to go fishing is the day you CAN go fishing. So you have time to get out, but conditions aren’t optimal….that’s life right? Invest some money into some good foul weather gear, and you’ll surprise yourself as to what kind of weather you can comfortably fish in, and be successful at it. With the exception of extreme weather (flooding/drought), here in the Southern Appalachians fish can be caught any day of the year. Getting out in all types of weather conditions will magnify your understanding of trout and the way they act ten-fold! It’s like anything else, it won’t happen overnight, but the more you do it the more you will understand it. Pretty soon you will begin to pick up on all the little subtle clues that are going on around you, and begin to put them together like a jigsaw puzzle. That’s why we love this sport right? Its challenging, and if it were easy it would be boring.5. BE PREPARED.There is nothing worse than figuring out what the fish are doing, and not having the right flies to maximize on the opportunity. Here are a list of flies that I will never leave home without on a February outing: Dark winter stones – this is the primary hatch for most streams in the south during most of February. I carry both the nymph and dry fly version in size 14-16 Zebra copper johns and prince nymphs imitate the nymph, and a sparsely tied black caddis works for the dry in case you can’t come up with a direct imitation of the winter stone. Midges – although they are small, and some time a pain to a lot of fisherman, midges are widely available to the fish all times of the year, and can be deadly effective. For the most part, and assortment of olive, red, and black zebra midges in sz 18-22 will work for the sub-surface imitation. For a dry fly a Griffiths Gnat in 18 – 22 is about all you need. Blue Winged Olives – these guys hatch sporadically throughout the colder months, and they really like overcast days. Have some in sizes 16-20….personally I like the dry flies tied parachute style. For the nymph, a pheasant tail works great. Blue Quills – probably the first major hatch that typically begins in late Feb. These guys are about a size 14 or 16. A traditionally tied (catskill version) dry fly works great. If they are hatching I rarely find myself fishing a nymph, but a soft hackle pheasant tail would do the trick. Quill Gordon – these are the BIG GUYS. They normally range from a size 8 – 12! The Catskill tied version works great for a dry fly, and again if they are hatching you won’t find me with a nymph on but if you must, a soft hackle hare’s ear will do. Black Caddis – most of the time these guys are found in March, but I have seen them around in late Feb, so it doesn’t hurt to have some. Caddis are a little more tricky than mayflies. I have found swinging a dark-colored soft hackle downstream in a size 14 is much more effective than dead drifting a dry fly. But again, it doesn’t hurt to carry a few Black Elk Hair Caddis in 14-16. Attractors –there are many bugs available to the fish that don’t hatch during the time you are fishing, and many flies that don’t necessarily imitate one thing, but a wide range of things. Here are some attractors that have worked well for me during the winter months: Pats Rubber Leg Stone in sizes 8-12Zug Bugs sizes 12-16Prince Nymphs size 8 – 16Soft Hackle Hares Ear size 14-18Guides Choice Hares ear size 12-18Sassi Solution 14-18Rainbow Warrior sz 16-20Partridge & Olive sz 16 – 20Parachute Adams sz 10 – 18Wooly Bugger Olive sz 6-12Squirmy Worm sz 14.Hopefully some of these tips will encourage you to get out and enjoy a few blissful days this February. The fishing can be fantastic, and rarely do you have to put up with the crowds! For any further questions, please call Brookings Anglers @ (828) 743 3768. Happy fishing![divider]about the author[/divider]Matt Canter was born in Greensboro, North Carolina. He spent his youth fishing farm ponds in between family trips to the mountains and the coast, where fishing tended to be the activity of choice. While attending Western Carolina University, Matt spent as much or more time on the rivers as he did in the classroom. After several years of managing Brookings’ Cashiers Village Anglers, Matt made a life long wish come true, and became an owner in the business.