This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2012 Phys.Org Journal information: Nature Geoscience Methane is considered by most Earth scientists to be number two on the list of greenhouse gasses that contribute to global warming, after CO2, and because of that more research is being done with the hopes of finding where all of it is coming from. It generally forms when organic matter decays or is digested and thus known sources include animal exhaust, including from humans, melting of permafrost, waste from landfills and decaying matter beneath the floor of the world’s oceans. Now, based on this new research it appears another significant source is seeps from lakes formed by glaciers. Scientists believe that when glaciers formed they trapped organic matter beneath them. Later as lakes formed at their edges, methane began to be produced as the organic matter rotted. That methane remained trapped however, until recently, by the cap of ice that remained on the surface of such lakes. Now, in the past decade, with the rise in Arctic temperatures, seeps have developed allowing the methane to slowly escape into the atmosphere. The team has mapped, using both aerial and ground based surveys, 150,000 such seeps in Alaska and Greenland alone.Scientists monitoring methane in the atmosphere have found that levels of the gas rose predictably in the latter half of the last century, then for unknown reasons, leveled off for about five years, and then resumed rising again. Because of this, researchers are concerned, as it’s thought that the Arctic, which is experiencing warming at a faster pace than anywhere else on the planet, could be entering a phase where because of feedback loops such as these seen with methane (and with carbon emissions from melting permafrost) we’re on a course that could see global warming occur on a much faster pace than has been previously anticipated. Others of course suggest that because we still don’t really understand how the whole system works, making any sort of prediction at this point would be premature. Wetlands are bad and good news for Arctic warming: study (Phys.org) — A team of researchers, led by Katey Walter Anthony, of the University of Alaska, has been studying and mapping so-called seeps, holes in lake ice near the edges of glaciers where methane is bubbling up from below into the atmosphere, and suggest that a feedback loop may be in the works. As the team writes in their paper describing their observations, which has been published in the journal Nature Geoscience, seeping methane that results from Arctic warming, might itself also be contributing to warming; a feedback loop that could accelerate global warming. More information: Geologic methane seeps along boundaries of Arctic permafrost thaw and melting glaciers, Nature Geoscience (2012) doi:10.1038/ngeo1480AbstractMethane, a potent greenhouse gas, accumulates in subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs, such as coal beds and natural gas deposits. In the Arctic, permafrost and glaciers form a ‘cryosphere cap’ that traps gas leaking from these reservoirs, restricting flow to the atmosphere. With a carbon store of over 1,200 Pg, the Arctic geologic methane reservoir is large when compared with the global atmospheric methane pool of around 5 Pg. As such, the Earth’s climate is sensitive to the escape of even a small fraction of this methane. Here, we document the release of 14C-depleted methane to the atmosphere from abundant gas seeps concentrated along boundaries of permafrost thaw and receding glaciers in Alaska and Greenland, using aerial and ground surface survey data and in situ measurements of methane isotopes and flux. We mapped over 150,000 seeps, which we identified as bubble-induced open holes in lake ice. These seeps were characterized by anomalously high methane fluxes, and in Alaska by ancient radiocarbon ages and stable isotope values that matched those of coal bed and thermogenic methane accumulations. Younger seeps in Greenland were associated with zones of ice-sheet retreat since the Little Ice Age. Our findings imply that in a warming climate, disintegration of permafrost, glaciers and parts of the polar ice sheets could facilitate the transient expulsion of 14C-depleted methane trapped by the cryosphere cap. Explore further Citation: Environmental group measures methane seeps in the Arctic (2012, May 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-05-environmental-group-methane-seeps-arctic.html The effect on lake ice formation of subcap and superficial seeps. Image (c) Nature Geoscience (2012) doi:10.1038/ngeo1480
The new atom laser technique can be used to create different types of lasers. These figures show the atom density distributions of (a) a well-collimated atom laser beam, (b) an ultra-high flux atom laser, and (c) an atom beam combining an atom laser and thermal emission. Credit: Bolpasi, et al. ©2014 IOP Publishing © 2014 Phys.org Journal information: New Journal of Physics Explore further Stimulated mutual annihilation: How to make a gamma-ray laser with positronium (Phys.org) —In an atom laser, millions of individual atoms propagate through space with minimal spreading, just like photons propagate in a coherent photon laser beam. Although both types of lasers are similar, atom lasers are still in the early stages of research with much work to be done before they can be used for applications, which may include atom lithography, atom interferometry, and magnetometry (measuring magnetic fields). Citation: Scientists overcome fundamental atom laser limit to build brightest atom laser to date (2014, May 7) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-05-scientists-fundamental-atom-laser-limit.html A key factor for both types of lasers is their flux, which is the rate at which the atoms and photons are emitted. In current atom lasers, the flux is fundamentally limited by the same outcoupling process that is used to create the atom laser in the first place. Now in a new study published in the New Journal of Physics, researchers from Greece and Singapore have demonstrated a novel, ultra-bright atom laser that overcomes this fundamental atom laser limit, achieving a flux of 107 atoms per second, which is seven times brighter than the brightest atom lasers to date. Using the same technique, the researchers also created an ultra-cold atom beam, which at just 200 nanoKelvin (nK) is two orders of magnitude colder than any atom beam reported to date. As the researchers explain, atom lasers are usually made from clouds of atoms that are magnetically trapped and cooled to temperatures near absolute zero, the so-called Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). A BEC is so cold that many of its atoms occupy their lowest energy states, or ground states. In this state the atoms lose their individual identity and form one single quantum state. These atoms join the other atoms in the ground states by bosonic stimulation, in a process that is very similar to the amplification process in optical lasers, in which large numbers of photons are created at the same frequency and same spatial distribution. In both cases, many particles occupy the same quantum level.To get the BEC to emit a coherent beam of atoms, radio frequency (rf) fields are applied to the BEC to change the atoms’ trapped states to “propagating” states. This process is called “outcoupling,” and causes the atoms to accelerate out of the BEC and form the atom laser beam. The acceleration occurs due to a combination of factors, including gravity, magnetic forces, and interactions with other atoms.In current atom lasers, the rf fields used in the outcoupling process are relatively weak. When increasing the rf field intensity bound states appear, and the output becomes irregular. As a result, the laser output can eventually shut off, creating a bottleneck to improving the flux.To overcome this problem, the researchers in the new study used very strong rf fields, which rather than changing the atom’s states deform the trapping potential. The strong rf fields form a trap with a controllable hole that causes the atoms to spill slowly out of a small opening in the bottom edge of the BEC. Whereas a weak rf field outcoupler cannot improve the flux past a certain point due to the formation of bound states, a strong rf field outcoupler can emit atoms from the BEC at an almost arbitrary rate, leading to a very high flux. In experiments, the researchers achieved a flux of 7.4 x 107 atoms per second originating from only 9 x 104 atoms initially in the BEC. This flux is seven times larger than the previous maximum flux even though it uses less than half the number of atoms. The researchers predict that larger condensates combined with faster rf field pulses will further increase the flux by an order of magnitude.In the second part of their study, the researchers used the strong rf field to create an atom beam that contains an atom laser and a thermal atom beam at the same time. This is the first time that this kind of hybrid atom beam has been demonstrated, and it is also the coldest atom beam ever reported. Even though the flux of the thermal atoms is low, the ultra-cold thermal beam may still be useful for high-resolution spectroscopy of ultra-cold collisions. More information: V. Bolpasi, et al. “An ultra-bright atom laser.” New Journal of Physics 16 (2014) 033036. DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/16/3/033036 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Play A chorus of túngara frogs in Gamboa, Panama. Choruses, from which females choose their mates can be composed of a handful or many males. (Noise outside of the range of calls has been filtered for clarity). Credit: Amanda M. Lea The researchers do not really know why the females responded they way they did, but plan to conduct more studies to see if they can find out—they suspect it may have an evolutionary impact that is not readily apparent. Vision stimulates courtship calls in the grey tree frog Explore further PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen (Phys.org)—A pair of researchers has found that female túngaras, frogs that live in parts of Mexico and Central and South America, appear to be susceptible to the “decoy effect.” In their paper published in the journal Science, Amanda Lea and Michael Ryan describe lab experiments they carried out with female frogs and recorded calls by males, and what they found during their observations. Citation: Study shows female frogs susceptible to ‘decoy effect’ (2015, August 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-08-female-frogs-susceptible-decoy-effect.html Male túngara frog calling within a chorus in Gamboa, Panama. Males gather in choruses to advertise for potential mates. Females approach male callers and show preferences for males based on call properties. Credit: Amanda M. Lea More information: Irrationality in mate choice revealed by túngara frogs, Science 28 August 2015: Vol. 349 no. 6251 pp. 964-966. DOI: 10.1126/science.aab2012ABSTRACTMate choice models derive from traditional microeconomic decision theory and assume that individuals maximize their Darwinian fitness by making economically rational decisions. Rational choices exhibit regularity, whereby the relative strength of preferences between options remains stable when additional options are presented. We tested female frogs with three simulated males who differed in relative call attractiveness and call rate. In binary choice tests, females’ preferences favored stimulus caller B over caller A; however, with the addition of an inferior “decoy” C, females reversed their preferences and chose A over B. These results show that the relative valuation of mates is not independent of inferior alternatives in the choice set and therefore cannot be explained with the rational choice models currently used in sexual selection theory. Journal information: Science © 2015 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. In the wild, male túngaras offer one of two types of calls when looking to attract a female; one sounds a little like a whine, while the other has more of a chuck sound—the males also alter the duration of the call. Prior studies have shown that females tend to prefer calls that are low (indicating a bigger frog) and that last a little longer. But, the research duo report, the females can be caused to change their mind under the right circumstances.Scientists that study human behavior have found that there is an odd thing that happens when people go to buy something, a used car for example. If shown two cars, a cost minded customer is more likely to choose a cheap small car over a bigger more expensive one—unless they are also shown one that is similar to the bigger one, but costs more—that can cause some customers to change their minds and pick the intermediate option, rather than the one that is cheapest—something that has been called the “decoy effect.” And now it appears that some female frogs are susceptible to it as well.In their study Lea and Ryan placed female frogs in an enclosure that also held three speakers, placed some distance apart. The researchers played male frog noises on the speakers and watched to see which speaker attracted the female. They noted that as expected, when given two options, a very attractive call and one considered intermediate, the female generally went with the more attractive call option. But when three calls were made, that were highly attractive, intermediately attractive, and of low attractiveness, the females tended to go with the intermediate choice instead.
Le-Rythme, an organization of Promoting Indian Music and Dance, organizing a Musical concert- Sur Sandhya a live performance by Singer Rini Mukherjee on January 4 at Sri Sathya Sai International Centre, Lodhi Road. This Musical Event will be dedicated to the prestigious campaign of India Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. Mahesh Sharma Minister of State Culture and Tourism (Independent Charge) and Civil Aviation and Meenakshi Lekhi Member of Parliament will be the Chief Guest of this event. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The programme will be presided by Shyamalendu Niyogi, Former Managing Director- UPPCL, Director (HR) –GAIL, In the august presence of Pranab Mukhapadhyay, IFS and Shiv Shankar Mukherjee, IFS (Former High Commissioners of India), A.K. Balyan, Managing Director and CEO Petronet LNG Ltd, M. Ravindran, Director (HR), GAIL (India) Ltd, Veena Swarup, Director (HR), Engineers India Limited, Brig. R. S. Chikkara, Executive Vice Chairman, Netaji Subhash Bose INA Trust, Anandamohan Mukherjee, General Secretary, Netaji Subhash Bose INA Trust, Renuka Malaker, Trustee, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose INA Trust will be the guest of Honour on this occasion. Sheila Sengupta (nice of Netaji subhash Chandra Bose), Padmabhusan Saroja Vaidyanathan, Flute Maestro Pandit Rajendra Prasanna will be the special guest on this occasion. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixGolden Melodies by Rini Mukherjee will captivate the audience in musical evening ‘Sur Sandhya’. Dance performance by troupe of Padmabhusan Saroja Vaidyanathan Choreographed by Ganesha Natyalaya will be another attraction on this occasion. Apart from this Performance by famous Bengali band of Kolkata Creations will also mesmerized the audience on this occasion.When: January 4, Where: Sri Sathya Sai International Centre, Lodhi Road
While making the unwarranted and unsubstantiated allegation of how the judiciary is scared of “five-star” activists, Prime Minister Narendra Modi appears to have forgotten intimidating outfits like the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) which are affiliated to his own party.How the RSS interacts with the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) can be seen from the regular meetings between its top leaders with party president Amit Shah and other top office-bearers. The ascension of Ram Madhav (a former RSS spokesperson) to the post of National General Secretary of the BJP is only one example of the close ties between the pro-Hindutva organisation and the BJP government. Also Read – Gateway of criminal justiceHowever, if the RSS influences the government, the latter also holds some sway over the RSS. The proof of this two-way interaction can be easily gleaned from the decision of the RSS to put the Ram temple issue on hold, apparently in response to Modi’s call for a moratorium on sectarian tension in his Independence Day speech.It is also possible that the reason why the RSS chief, Mohan Bhagwat, no longer argues that all Indians are essentially Hindus is because of an internal understanding between him and the government. Also Read – Turning a blind eyeArguably, there is nothing unusual about such interactions between different wings of what the Hindutva camp claims to be one big “parivar” or family.But the point here is that such exchanges between the RSS and the government take place behind closed doors, whereas there is nothing secret about the pleas of the “five-star” activists, as the prime minister derisively called the various Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs), before the judiciary.Besides, not only are the NGOs open to judicial and media scrutiny, but their emphasis is almost always on public welfare irrespective of their religious denominations and preferences. It is possible, of course, that there is a hidden political motive behind some of their initiatives or that some of the activists push an agenda which has the support of what Indira Gandhi used to call the “foreign hand”. Even then, what stands in favour of the activists is that their tacit intentions are liable to be revealed sooner or later as the lawyers for and against them present their cases in open courts.Unfortunately, this isn’t true of saffron organisations like the Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP), which have traditionally been associated with an anti-minority outlook. What the general public will be grateful to the government, therefore, is if it can keep outfits like these in check.On the other hand, the average citizen will expect the NGOs to continue to function without fear or favour because they are known to consist of people who, to a very large extent, have no axes to grind. The very fact that they occasionally run afoul of governments is testimony to their impartiality and non-partisan behaviour. Moreover, in such cases, the government’s charges, as against Greenpeace, usually carry less conviction than the latter’s defences.It will be a pity if India is to begin to resemble the totalitarian and theocratic countries where NGOs are unwelcome. It has to be remembered these NGOs are very much unlike the RSS or the Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP), which are opaque organisations who admit followers of only one religion as members.It goes without saying that the three institutions which enjoy considerable public trust are the judiciary, the media and the NGOs. Of the three, the last two may have their faults, but they operate in an open, competitive field where the slightest slip can be disastrous for their future.In contrast, the general reputation of politicians is hardly lily-white.One must be thankful that Indian democracy is far more vigorous today than, say, four decades ago when large sections of the media were accused of bending and crawling before a draconian government. Such an eventuality is extremely unlikely at present because of the huge proliferation of television channels, newspapers and magazines, not to mention social network sites.The judiciary, too, has recognised that the Emergency years (1975-77) were not its finest, as is evident from the comments of PN Bhagwati, one of the judges who delivered the verdict in the so-called habeas corpus case. According to him, his judgment was “an act of weakness”, adding that “it was against my conscience”.Although the media is seemingly not under any overt official pressure, there is little doubt that the NGOs have become somewhat more vulnerable, as the recent deplaning of an environmentalist, who was on her way to Britain, showed. As may be expected, it was the judiciary which came to her rescue.But the episode underlined the government’s ire, which is probably due to the fact that several NGOs had joined the National Human Rights Commission, the National Commission for Minorities and the Supreme Court to pillory the Gujarat government under Modi during the 2002 riots.The apex court had then described the state’s rulers as “modern-day Neros” who fiddled while Gujarat burnt. Modi’s charge that the judges fear the NGOs is apparently a riposte to that accusation 12 years later.
In an announcement that caught the entire football fraternity by surprise, Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) President Sepp Blatter announced his resignation on Tuesday. It was only five days ago that Blatter was re-elected as president of FIFA for a fifth term after his only challenger conceded defeat. It was, however, an election overshadowed by allegations of rampant corruption in the world football body. The closest he came in his resignation speech to citing a reason was that “not everybody” supported him. It was, as many observers have argued, a thinly-veiled attack on many Western European football federations that had vehemently opposed his candidature for a fifth term. Also Read – Working on improving tiesThe narrative leading up to his resignation involved investigations by the US Justice Department. The federal executive department of the US government had unsealed a damning indictment last week that charged 47 individuals, including top FIFA officials, with bribery, racketeering, money laundering, fraud and other related crimes. While many of the details are still unclear, it appears that many of these alleged crimes were neither committed in the United States nor by U.S. citizens. Swiss authorities, meanwhile, aided the US Justice Department in arresting senior FIFA officials from a hotel in Geneva, a day before voting for the football body’s presidential elections was to take place. Hours after the arrests, the Swiss Office of the Attorney General opened a second, parallel investigation concerning alleged corruption in the bidding process for the 2018 Russia World Cup and the 2022 Qatar World Cup. Also Read – Political parties and our RepublicThese allegations, according to sources close to Blatter, had created an irreparable dent to FIFA’s image. However, another more probable reason behind his resignation could be the apprehension the indictments had created in the minds of FIFA’s leading sponsors. Visa, one of FIFA’s biggest sponsors, has threatened to withdraw its funding and described its “profound disappointment” with football’s governing body. Big ticket sponsors like Nike, Adidas and Coca-Cola also find themselves unwillingly embroiled in a scandal which is sure to hit their stock prices hard. In the ultimate analysis, however, votes for the FIFA president are cast by national football associations. These national associations are, in many places, every bit as unaccountable and corrupt. Be that as it may, some observers have also argued that the vehement attack on FIFA may lie in the sphere of geopolitics, especially against the US and Western European nations. Under Sepp Blatter, FIFA refused the US government’s demand to throw Iran out of the 2006 World Cup, as part of the latter’s sanctions against the West Asian nation. Matters came to a
Kolkata: A team from Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) found mosquito larvae near Triguna Sen auditorium inside Jadavpur University campus on Saturday.A team led by Atin Ghosh, Member, Mayor-in-Council (health) reached the University campus in the afternoon as a part of an anti-larvae drive. Aedes Aegypti larvae were found in the accumulated water that was kept in containers. The KMC team cleared the water. Also, Aedes Aegypti larvae were found inside the lift well of a building which is under construction. Larvae were also found inside the unused iron almirahs that are kept beside the office of the ground supervisor. A senior civic official said the authorities of institutional buildings have been requested to ensure that empty plastic tea cups are cleaned from the roofs and unused almirahs and furniture are removed from the premises. The team found that the garbage accumulated near the School of Environment and School of Physical Education was not removed. Aedes Aegypti were found inside the earthen pot kept outside the office of the Vice-Chancellor Suranjan Das. The garbage that was dumped near the teachers’ quarters has been removed. The KMC authorities will conduct anti-larvae drives throughout the city. A high level-meeting was held last week that was attended by the officials of state and central government offices. The KMC will serve notices if the instructions are flouted and will file cases in the Municipal Courts. The court can slap fines up to Rs 1 lakh.
Outside India, especially in Europe, beer is heavily consumed and it is an important part of their culture. The usage of unique recipes in handcrafted beer has attracted enthusiasts from all across the world to Czech Republic. But now that Czech Republic based company Roneli and Bohemia Beer Pvt. Ltd. has recently launched the first Czech beer, ‘Bohemian King’ in India, one can easily taste the unique craftsmanship in their own comfort zone.The recipe of ‘Bohemian King,’ which defines authentic Czech beer, has been obtained from the Brevnov Monastery in Prague – the oldest brewery in the Czech Republic (established in 993 AD) and located in the heart of Bohemia. Milan Hovorka, Ambassador of the Czech Republic in India, under the patronage of whom the official launch of the first ever Czech beer brewed in India took place, said: “The Embassy of the Czech Republic is honoured and pleased to be a part of this historic moment. I am grateful to all who have been working hard to transform a long term dream of having a Czech beer and a part of our culture in India into reality.” Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Rakesh Dhawan, Managing Director, Bohemia Beer Pvt. Ltd., said, “It is an exciting moment for us to launch the first Czech beer in India. We have formed this company with a vision of being a serious player in the growing Indian beer industry. The Indian beer market is currently growing approx. at 10 per cent per annum and we aim to be the sixth largest player in the Indian beer market in our first year of operations.”Antonin Kovarik, Export Director, Roneli, said, “Our partners comprises of some of the most experienced people from the industry and we are extremely happy to partner with them. India is a young country and we are excited to bring to them a unique Czech beer specifically formulated for them. Consumption of Beer in Czech Republic per Capita is the highest in the world. It is not a surprise that Czech people drink about 150 litres of beer annually. We foresee a huge potential in India as we expect the current consumption of beer to double in the country.” The comapny has plans to invest around 500 crores in the coming few years and has set up a plant in Punjab that will manufacture the beer. In the first phase, ‘Bohemian King’ will be available in Delhi, Punjab, Rajasthan, Chandigarh, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Assam, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh. The company aims to become the sixth largest player in the next one year of the Indian beer industry which is approximately pegged at 270 to 280 million cases.Gaurav Sharma, Director, Bohemia Beer Pvt. Ltd., said, “The premium segment where our brand will be focused on is currently growing at much faster rate of approximately 200 per cent. Recent government polices and various state governments allowing new sales channels like departmental stores, micro-brewery etc., will further provide the right impetus in sales.”
“This research has clear implications for shift workers with odd schedules, but probably extends to many of us who keep schedules that differ greatly from day-to-day, especially from weekdays to weekends,” said one of the researchers David Earnest, Professor at Texas A&M Health Science Centre College of Medicine in the US. “These irregular schedules can produce what is known as ‘social jet lag’, which similarly unwinds our body clocks so that they no longer keep accurate time, and thus can lead to the same effects on human health as shift work,” Earnest noted. According to Earnest, it is not the longer hours – or the weird hours –necessarily that is the problem. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Instead, it is the change in the timing of waking, sleeping and eating every few days that “unwinds” our body clocks and makes it difficult for them to maintain their natural, 24-hour cycle. When body clocks are disrupted, as they are when people go to bed and get up at radically different times every few days, there can be a major impact on health. The researchers found that shift work can affect the brain and lead to more severe ischemic strokes which occur when blood flow is cut off to part of the brain. The study was published in the journal Endocrinology. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix“The body is synchronised to night and day by circadian rhythms — 24-hour cycles controlled by internal biological clocks that tell our bodies when to sleep, when to eat and when to perform numerous physiological processes,” Earnest said. “A person on a shift work schedule, especially on rotating shifts, challenges, or confuses, their internal body clocks by having irregular sleep-wake patterns or meal times,” Earnest noted.
Fruit juice offers no nutritional benefit to children under the age of one and may contribute to excessive weight gain, say experts who recommend not including juices in the diet of infants. The American Academy of Pediatrics issued a new policy marking the first change in recommendations on fruit juice since 2001.Over past years, the body had advised against offering fruit juice to children under the age of six months, but has expanded that time frame to include the entire first year of life. The revision accounts for the rising rates of obesity and concerns about dental health based on data accumulated over recent years, researchers said. “Parents may perceive fruit juice as healthy, but it is not a good substitute for fresh fruit and just packs in more sugar and calories,” said Melvin B Heyman, co-author of the new research published in the journal Pediatrics. Also Read – Add new books to your shelf”Small amounts in moderation are fine for older kids, but are absolutely unnecessary for children under one,” said Heyman. The new recommendations state that 100 per cent fresh or reconstituted fruit juice can be a healthy part of the diet of children older than one year when consumed as part of a well-balanced diet.Consumption, however, should be limited depending on a child’s age. Researchers recommend that intake of juice should be limited to, at most, four ounces daily for toddlers age one to three. For children aged four to six, fruit juice should be restricted to 4 – 6 ounces daily and for those aged 7-18, juice intake should be limited to 1 cup per day. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveToddlers should not be given juice from bottles or easily transportable “sippy cups” that allow them to consume juice easily throughout the day. The excessive exposure of the teeth to carbohydrates can lead to tooth decay, as well. Toddlers should also not be given juice at bedtime, researchers recommend.Children should be encouraged to eat whole fruits and be educated about the benefits of the fruit as compared with juice, which lacks dietary fibre and may contribute to excessive weight gain, they said. Human milk or infant formula is sufficient for infants, and low-fat/nonfat milk and water are sufficient for older children.Consumption of unpasteurised juice products should be strongly discouraged for children of all ages. In addition, fruit juice is not appropriate in the treatment of dehydration or management of diarrhoea. “We know that excessive fruit juice can lead to excessive weight gain and tooth decay,” said co-author Steven A Abrams.